Ensuring the safety of passengers and cargo is an important quality indicator in assessing the organization of the transport sector. International experience strongly suggests that the process of reducing the number of accidents and the severity of their impact is manageable, and road traffic injuries can be predicted and reduced.
The adoption in 2006 the federal target program "Improving road safety 2006-2012" by the Government of the Russian Federation, was doubtless an important step in solving the problem of road traffic accidents in the country. The lives of nearly 35,000 of our citizens have been saved in the period from 2006 to 2012 due to implementation of the FTP. The rate of reduction of accidents and fatalities in road accidents, especially in the period from 2006 to 2012, which was among the highest in the world, have shown the correctness of the chosen orientation of public policy for the use in the field of program-oriented approach to the planning and management of the activity. All this determined the decision to adopt a new federal program "Improving road safety 2013-2020."
SRI specialists were involved in the development of several projects of the federal program "Improving road safety 2006-2012":
"Preparation of evidence-based proposals for the development of public passenger transport in terms of road safety"
The results are partially embedded in the Transport Strategy of the Russian Federation until 2030 (approved by the Federal Government on November 22, 2008 № 1734-p), the draft safety regulations on passenger safety on motor and urban ground electrical transport (is pending in the Government of the Russian Federation), the draft Federal Law "On the motor transport activities" (at the stage of inter-ministerial coordination in the Ministry of Transport of Russia), and in some regional projects, which are carried out by JSC "NIIAT".
"Research on problems of unification of international and national requirements in terms of vehicle safety"
One of the main results of the research is a scientific and methodical approach to assessing the safety of the vehicle fleet, based on the requirements of international standards and the complex structural matrix of vehicle safety. Criteria for assessing the changes of vehicle safety as a result of normative legal regulation can objectively determine the effectiveness of this regulation. These criteria are one of the main methodological tools in the evaluation system of technical standards and safety of vehicles at issuance and in real world conditions.
The following materials and regulations were designed based on the analysis of international and national requirements regarding the safety of vehicles and organizing activities for their development and implementation:
- Government Decree from 27.11.2006 № 718 "On Customs Tariff of the Russian Federation and the product nomenclature applied in the implementation at international economic activity"
- Order of the Federal agency for technical regulation and metrology from 10.12.2007 № 3453 "On Approval of Changes №1” of the "Regulations on certification system for motor vehicles and trailers."
- Government Decree from 10.09.2009 № 720 "On approval of technical regulation on safety of wheeled vehicles."
- Government Decree of 10.09.2010 № 706 "On Amendments to the technical regulation on safety of wheeled vehicles."
- Rule number 2 of the Vienna Agreement 1997 on the technical inspection of vehicles. 2011.
- Decision of the Commission of the Customs Union from 09.12.2011 № 877 "On Approval of the technical regulations of the Customs Union on the safety of wheeled vehicles."
- Federal Law № 170-FL from 01.07.2011 "On the technical inspection of vehicles and on amendments to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation"
- Government Decree from December 5, 2011 № 1008 "On the technical inspection of vehicles."
- Order of the RF Ministry of Transport from December 19, 2011 № 320 "On approval of rules of filling out the diagnostic card of the vehicle"
Rule 2 of the Vienna Agreement of 1997 on technical requirements of ATS is prepared on the initiative and approved by the Russian Federation.
A draft of amendments to the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic of 1968, establishing the requirements for on-board intelligent systems was developed.
Certain proposals were developed on the implementation of the roadmap UNECE on promotion of intelligent transport systems, which can be considered as the basis for the formation of a national strategy in this area.
The requirements to the system of emergency response to the accident, harmonized with the European system eCall were prepared.
"Research on regulatory and methodological support for developing continuing education and professional driver skills. Preparation of proposals for its improvement."
The results of the work are used in the preparation of draft national licensing systems for professional passenger and cargo drivers, provisions for admission to the professional activities of people directly involved in vehicle driving, as well as projects of driver qualifications for the vehicle category "B", "C", "D", "BE", "CE" and "DE".
"The scientific development of methods of professional training for vehicle drivers"
The set of proposals put forward in the framework of the present study is aimed at reducing the influence of the "professional human factor" in the safety of the transport system. This process should not be considered settled, with the development of motorization of the country, an increase of the vehicle fleet, change in its structure in terms of technical level, the development of road infrastructure and the like, the methodology of work with the drivers should dynamically reflect all the possible factors of influence. In many ways, this is determined by the level of professional drivers of commercial vehicles in the economic sector of the country.
Developed guidelines for the professional training of vehicle drivers are focused on comprehensive training of drivers to operate in critical traffic situations, which implies the use of effective emergency measures to prevent the development of a negative scenario and a road accident.
"Conducting research on the implementation of the preventive measures aimed at improving road safety (compliance to the work and rest ratio, pre-trip and post-trip medical examinations, the use of speed charts, etc.) by the legal owners of vehicles (officials) in terms of compliance with the requirements of Federal Law "On road safety"
The results of the research are presented in the form of draft amendments to the legal acts in the field of road safety:
- Federal Law "On Road Safety" from December 10, 1995 № 196-FL;
- Federal Law "Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Violations" December 30, 2001 № 195-FL;
- Government Decree from August 3, 1996 № 922 "On improving safety of long-distance and international passenger and freight motor transportation";
- Regulation of the RF Ministry of Transport approved by the Government of the Russian Federation from July 30, 2004 № 395;
- Order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation of 24.11.2008 N 1001 "On the procedure of registration of vehicles";
- Government Decree from October 30, 2006 № 637 "Regulations on licensing of passenger motor vehicles equipped to transport more than 8 people (except for the cases when this activity is carried out for the own needs of the legal entity or individual entrepreneur)";
- Order of the RF Ministry of Transport from August 20, 2004 № 15 "On approval of the Regulation on the peculiarities of work and rest ratio for drivers of vehicles";
- Order of the RF Ministry of Transport from 11 March 1994 № 13/11 "On approval of the order of certification of executive managers and specialists and their units engaged in the passenger and freight motor transportation."
"Research and scientific rationale for vehicle equipment: safety belts for tourist, international buses and trucks"
The results of the research show that the majority of vehicles of categories M2 and M3 are introduced into circulation on the territory of the Russian Federation without seat belts for passengers, which adversely affects the safety of transportation.
In order to improve the safety of passenger vehicles of categories M2 and M3 it is advised to:
1. Change the order of certification of vehicles of categories M2 and M3 in the part of the mandatory equipment of seat belts installed in vehicles of these categories, regardless of the declared type of the vehicle (bus, special vehicle) and the term of the certificate of conformity with the exception of vehicles of categories M2 and M3 which are designed for use in urban environments to carry standing passengers.
2. Provide technical supervision of compliance with the grade of vehicles of categories M2 and M3 circulating on the territory of the Russian Federation, their grade at issue of the certificate of conformity.
The results of the work were used in the preparation of the Decree by the Government of Russian Federation from February 24, 2010 № 87 "On Amending Resolution of the Cabinet Council of the Government of the Russian Federation dated 23 October 1993 № 1090."
"Studies of the problem of compliance of vehicles, parts, additional items of equipment, spare parts and accessories for vehicles imported from abroad in the part relating to road safety, to the requirements established in the Russian Federation, and the development of appropriate proposals"
As a result of the work, the following practical proposals were developed to significantly improve the safety of vehicles:
- Procedure of confirmation of compliance of vehicles, parts, additional items of equipment, spare parts and accessories for vehicles imported from abroad in the part relating to road safety, to the requirements established in the Russian Federation;
- Proposals to change the existing procedures of mandatory conformity described in the "Rules of certification of motor vehicles and trailers."
- Indicators of the effectiveness of the procedures on improving the conformity of vehicles and methods of their monitoring.
Results have been implemented in the Order of the Federal agency for technical regulation and metrology from 10.12.2007 № 3453 "On Approval of Changes №1” of the "Regulations on certification system for motor vehicles and trailers."
"The scientific study on the development of criteria for the technical condition of vehicles permitted to operate under the terms of road safety"
Developed criteria for the technical condition of vehicles permitted to operate under the terms of road safety, have been used in the preparation of the following regulations:
Technical Regulations "On the safety of wheeled vehicles", Annex 5 and Annex 7 (approved by the Government of the Russian Federation from September 10, 2009 № 720);
Rules of the technical inspection of vehicles, Annex 1 (approved by RF Government Decree from December 5, 2011 № 1008);
Technical Regulations of the Customs Union TR TC 018/2011 "On the safety of wheeled vehicles", Annex 8 (approved by the Decision of the Customs Union Commission from 9 December 2011 № 877).
"Scientific research on the patterns of change in the parameters of vehicle safety in actual use throughout their life cycle"
Adjustments to the organizational project in monitoring the properties of vehicles in operation were done, and a set of regulations and guidance documents governing the organizational, investment, information and analytical aspects of monitoring compliance with automotive engineering technical standards for design safety, reliability, and other consumer characteristics on the basis of the organization of the testing system under real operation of a motor vehicle was developed.
Brief description of the implementation of the scientific results of monitoring the properties of motor vehicles in operation:
1. The Federal Law from 01.07.2011 № FL 170 "On the technical inspection of vehicles and on amendments to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation"
2. Government Decree from December 5, 2011 № 1008 "On the technical inspection of vehicles"
3. Government Decree from 24 May 2010 № 361 "On approval of rules establishing the amount of the cost of materials and spare parts for regenerative repair of vehicles."
4. Order of the RF Ministry of Transport from December 12, 2011 № 309 "On approval of the calculation of the amount of information support costs for materials and spare parts for regenerative repair of vehicles"
5. Order of the RF Ministry of Transport from January 25, 2011 № 20 "On approval of the Nomenclature of components (parts, components and assemblies), which is set to zero when calculating depreciation cost of spare parts for regenerative repair of vehicles"
"Scientific studies of the problem of responsibility of Automobile Manufacturers for the issue of defective products and mitigation of risk for purchasers of motor vehicles"
This article presents the analysis of:
- Domestic and foreign experience in the field of quality and safety of vehicles;
- Existing regulations in the field of conformity assessment of motor vehicles;
- Operating procedures, control and supervision over the compliance of vehicles;
- Domestic and foreign regulations that establish responsibility for manufacturers of poor quality motor products.
The article also developed:
- A system of monitoring the compliance of vehicles, taking into account the full information about the change of vehicles during the life cycle and responsibility of car manufacturers for poor quality products.
- Teaching materials (recommendations) on organizing and conducting of gathering information on safety, security and other properties of motor vehicles by car manufacturers;
- Methods of processing and presentation of information on safety, security and other properties of motor vehicles;
- Conformity assessment procedures of vehicles, taking into account information about motor vehicle safety at all stages of the life cycle;
- Training materials for certification bodies on conducting the check of the conditions of production and surveillance of vehicles.
"Study of the problems of modern domestic testing facilities which assess compliance of the constituent parts of the structure, additional items of equipment, spare parts and accessories for vehicles with the set requirements"
The presented work is a logical development of principles and methodologies for assessing the conformity of vehicles, parts, additional items of equipment, spare parts and accessories for vehicles with the requirements throughout their life cycle.
Experimental study on the testing of methodological approaches and test equipment with mandatory assessment of conformity of motor vehicle properties in operation (with periodic technical inspection) was carried out at "Techno Group", set up in 2009 to carry out technical control of cars (periodic technical inspection of cars and trucks, motorcycles, buses and other vehicles).
The usage of technical regulations "On safety of wheeled vehicles" in 2010 identified a number of inaccuracies and omissions, the analysis of which with the participation of specialists from JSC "NIIAT" was prepared and the following regulations were adopted:
- Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation from 10 September 2010 № 706 and from October 6, 2011 № 824 "On Amendments to the technical regulation on safety of wheeled vehicles";
- Ordinance of the Government of the Russian Federation from October 12, 2010 № 1750-p "On the list of documents in the field of standardization, containing rules and methods (tests) and measurements, including the rules of sampling necessary for the implementation and enforcement of technical regulations on safety of wheel vehicles, as well as for assessment of conformity."
"Conducting research aimed at amending legislation on motor passenger and freight transport, including hazardous, bulky and heavy"
The research results are implemented in the regulatory guidance document "Rules for the safety of passengers and goods on motor transport in the Russian Federation" (the first, second and third edition).
The proposals developed by JSC "NIIAT" for amendments to the Federal Law from 10.12.1995 № 196-FL "On road safety" of empowering the RF Ministry of Transport to approve rules of ensuring safe transportation of passengers by road and urban electric transport and land transport and Safety rules of motor freight transportation were implemented.
Currently, the following legislative initiative is foreseen in the plan of legislative activities of the RF Ministry of Transport for 2012, approved by the Decree of the RF Ministry of Transport 15.01.2012, № IL - 6 - p in Section IV «Bills prepared by the Ministry as a legislative initiative":
On Amending Article 20 of the Federal Law "On road safety" (in terms of granting RF Ministry of Transport the authority to approve rules to approve rules of ensuring safe transportation of passengers by road, as well as requirements to ensure the safety of transportation in the enterprises, institutions and organizations performing such operations). In November 2012 the bill was submitted to the Government of the Russian Federation.
At the same time, the draft Rules of enhancing the safety of passengers on motor and urban ground electrical transport and safety regulations of motor freight transportation are sent to the Department of State policy in the field of motor and urban transport for the coordination and preparation for approval.